Lake Biwa Rowing Song
Biwako Shuko no Uta, sing in ENGLISH!
|Lake Biwa Rowing Song CD
|On Oct. 20, 2007, the Umizukuri Boat Festa was held as a dragon boat and canoe race between Otsu and Ogoto. A mini concert was held at Ogoto with kids playing the reed flute (made from reeds growing in Lake Biwa) and Jamie singing the song in English. (Megan couldn't make it.) And guess what happened...
|Shiga Governor Kada Yukiko went on stage and sang with Jamie!! We were greatly honored.
|For the 6th annual Lake Biwa Kaitsuburi Regatta held on Sept. 16, 2007, the Lake Biwa Rowing Song CD was awarded as one of the prizes to the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd place winners in each of the nine categories. The song was also played during the regatta which was a supporting event for the annual Sports masters tournament for age 35+ athletes.|
by Philbert Ono
Updated: Mar. 3, 2009
Shiga Prefecture's most famous and popular song is called Biwako Shuko no Uta (琵琶湖周航の歌) which I have translated as Lake Biwa Rowing Song. The song is about a boat-rowing trip around Lake Biwa, Japan's largest lake and Shiga's claim to fame. With six verses, the song circumnavigates the lake as it mentions Shiga's famous places and evokes beautiful scenery and vivid colors. First, click on the video above to listen to the song by watching a music video.
The rowing trip was undertaken by seven college boys from Kyoto on June 27, 1917. They departed Otsu on the southern tip of the lake and rowed around the lake for four days in a fixed-seat, wooden boat. They lodged at Omi-Maiko (Omatsu) and Imazu on the western shore, crossed the lake to Chikubushima island and Nagahama, and went down the eastern shore while stopping at Hikone and Chomeiji before returning to Otsu.
The song is often confused with another Lake Biwa song called Biwako Aika 琵琶湖哀歌 (Lake Biwa Elegy). This mournful song was dedicated to the eight college rowers from Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture and three rowers from Kyoto who were practicing in waters off Imazu died when they encountered strong winds from the mountains on April 6, 1941.
In May 2006, I created an English version called Lake Biwa Rowing Song with the hope that it would help promote Shiga. The English song closely matches the Japanese song in both meaning and melody. We first unveiled it to the public on June 3, 2006 at Imazu Port in Takashima, Shiga. We also produced our Lake Biwa Rowing Song CD which went on sale on June 16, 2007. The English song and CD have been very well received in Shiga by the mass media, Boards of Education, tourism associations, and international exchange organizations.
About Biwako Shuko no Uta
Biwako Shuko no Uta (琵琶湖周航の歌) is by far Shiga Prefecture's most famous and popular song even though it is not the official prefectural song. "Biwako" means "Lake Biwa," "Shuko" means "cruise around," "no" means "of," and "Uta" means "song." The song is about a four-day, boat-rowing trip around Lake Biwa undertaken on June 27, 1917 by seven college students. They belonged to the rowing club of an elite university in Kyoto called Dai-san Koto Gakko (No. 3 High School 第三高等学校) which later merged with Kyoto University. ("High school" in those days referred to universities.) Some people might translate the song title as "Lake Biwa Cruise Song," but this is inaccurate because it is a rowing trip, not a boat cruise.
As shown by the red line on the map, they started at Otsu and rowed to Omatsu (now called Omi-Maiko), Imazu, Chikubushima island, Nagahama, Hikone, Chomeiji, and back to Otsu. They stopped overnight at Omatsu, Imazu, and Hikone. They used wooden, fixed-seat boats (now obsolete). The dotted blue line shows a longer route taken in 1893 when they did it for the first time. Twenty-one of them rowed around the lake in three boats, taking four nights and five days. The school's annual summer tradition of rowing around Lake Biwa thus began.
The song's popularity can be attributed to a number of factors. Both the Japanese lyrics and melody strike a deep chord among those singing the song. Although the lyrics is about a trip around lake, it is also about the journey of life. Among older people (especially the alumni of Dai-san Koto Gakko and Kyoto University), it brings back nostalgic memories of one's youth or one's hometown in Shiga. The melody is also nostalgic, infectious, and easy to sing. The tradition is for people to form a circle arm-in-arm while singing the song. A special feeling of camaraderie emerges.
The Japanese lyrics is credited to a rowing club member named Oguchi Taro 小口太郎 (1897-1924) from Okaya, Nagano Prefecture. A number of fellow boatmates and classmates also gave their own contributions and opinions about the lyrics. Oguchi had been working on the lyrics for some months before the lyrics were revealed to his rowing mates on June 28, 1917 in Imazu. It was after dinner on the second day of their rowing trip, when a crewmate named Nakayasu Jiro exclaimed, "Hey everyone, listen up! Oguchi has written this song," and showed everyone the song.
Then another crewmate named Taniguchi, who knew a popular song called Hitsuji-gusa (Water Lilies) by Yoshida Chiaki, began singing Oguchi's lyrics to the melody. Since the melody went well with the words, the rowing crewmates sang the song together that night. It was the birth of Biwako Shuko no Uta. According to one legend, Oguchi had written the lyrics while rowing on that trip. However, several classmate witnesses say that Oguchi actually started writing the song from autumn the previous year, collaborating with a handful of other classmates.
At this point, the song was still in draft form and it is unknown how many of the six verses were completed. The boys worked on the song further and sang it while rowing. It was completed a year later after undergoing revisions and refinements. The current, popular version today is slightly different as well, with a few different words and kanji characters used in the song.
The Hitsuji-gusa song was composed by a young Yoshida Chiaki 吉田千秋 (1895-1919) from Niigata Prefecture in 1915. The song was published in a music magazine that year and apparently became famous enough to be used with Oguchi's lyrics. Yoshida's song was actually his Japanese translation of a 19th-century British children's song called Water Lilies (the first line reads "Misty moonlight faintly falling O'er the lake at even tide..."). The song is about water lilies holding firm even in rain, stormy weather, etc. The song is about holding fast in times of adversity.
Instead of using the original Water Lilies melody, Yoshida composed his own melody to suit his Japanese lyrics. The melody was like a Christian hymn, evidence that Yoshida was influenced by his independent studies at a Christian church. It is a totally different melody from the original British Water Lilies song. But if you hear Yoshida's song, it becomes obvious that the melody was used in Biwako Shuko no Uta. Biwako Shuko no Uta has Buddhist overtones, so it is interesting that the song is matched with a Christian hymn. Ironically, Yoshida Chiaki, who died at age 24, never met the songwriter Oguchi Taro who also died in his 20s.
As the song circumnavigates the lake and mentions famous places in Shiga, the words also express symbolic meanings and sometimes unknown or mistaken meanings. The song is widely interpreted as describing the journey of life itself. (Details below.)
Written by a bunch of college students, the song also tells you of the youthful spirit which they had in rowing around this large lake. And like life itself, rowing around lake was also a great adventure. The song also has an air of mystery due to a number of unknown meanings in the lyrics.
Since the 1960s, the song has been recorded by many famous Japanese singers and groups such as Peggy Hayama, Miyako Harumi, Baisho Chieko, Frank Nagai, and Kobayashi Akira. Nini Rosso even recorded a trumpet version.
In 1971, it became a nationwide hit with singer Kato Tokiko's rendition. Today, the song remains dear to many people in Kyoto, Shiga, Nagano, and Niigata. Graduates of the old No. 3 High School, now in their 80s, regard the song as a symbol of their youth and college years. It is also an official song of Kyoto University and its rowing club whose members still row around the lake every summer. They sing it after each regatta or rowing trip.
Many people in Shiga also sing the song at the end of parties or official gatherings. Most choirs in Shiga also sing the song, sometimes overseas as well. In Imazu, Shiga, the so-called birthplace of the song, an choir competiton is held for this song every June (since 1997). Karaoke bars nationwide also include this song in their song collections.
Shiga Prefecture also has stone monuments dedicated to each of the six verses (photos here). There's even a museum (Biwako Shuko no Uta Shiryokan) in Imazu dedicated to the song. Okaya city on the shores of Lake Suwa in Nagano Prefecture, the birthplace of the song's composer, Oguchi Taro, also has a song monument and bronze statue of him.
About Lake Biwa Rowing Song
I first heard Biwako Shuko no Uta in May 2004 in Okaya, Nagano Prefecture when I was there to photograph the Onbashira Festival. I was walking along the shore of Lake Suwa where I came across a song monument and a large statue of Oguchi Taro who was a native of Okaya. Intrigued by the song, I later went to Shiga to find out more about the song. I visited a small, lakeside town called Imazu in the northwestern corner of Lake Biwa where there was the Biwako Shuko no Uta Shiryokan song museum dedicated to the song. The more I learned about the song, the more fascinating it became.
Although I found a few English translations of the Japanese lyrics, they were only for explanatory purposes and none of them matched the melody. Since there was no singable English version of the song, I decided to create one matching the melody composed by Yoshida Chiaki. After over a year in the making, I finally completed this English song and unveiled it to the public on June 3, 2006 at Imazu, Shiga Prefecture. As far as I know, this is the first English version matching the melody.
My English version was sung for the first time in public by twin sisters Jamie and Megan Thompson in front of the song monument at Imazu Port. About 30 people witnessed the event which was more of a PR videotaping session opened to the public. Our precious video shows two American women singing the song in both Japanese and English. Needless to say, this footage is great PR for Japan-America relations, English teaching, tourism, and all concerned. The video will be shown at the Biwako Shuko no Uta Shiryokan song museum (and on this Web page) for years to come, and many more people will eventually hear it.
As you can see in the video clip, while Jamie and Megan were singing, Lake Biwa's biggest boat named "Umi no Ko" appeared and docked at Imazu Port as if it came to greet the new English song. It soon unloaded a large horde of children studying about the lake on an educational lake cruise. The name "Umi no Ko" (Child of the lake) was taken from the song. See photos here.
The unveiling of the English song was covered by the local Asahi Shimbun and Yomiuri Shimbun newspapers in Shiga and the Nagoya-based Chunichi Shimbun newspaper. KBS Radio based in Kyoto and Shiga interviewed me live via telephone, and NHK Radio also introduced the song. We have had very good press coverage.
I also held several photo exhibitions in 2006 and 2007 to show pictures of the places mentioned in the song and the song monuments. The English lyrics were also included in the exhibitions held at the Biwako Shuko no Uta Shiryokan in Imazu, Biwa Library in Nagahama, Yokaichi Library in Higashi-Omi, and again in Imazu in May 30-July 1, 2007. My photo exhibition will keep traveling to different cities and towns in Shiga, mainly during the summer.
On Nov. 26, 20006, Jamie and Megan Thompson was one of 20 contestants (selected from among hundreds or maybe thousands of applicants) who appeared on the NHK TV Nodo Jiman amateur singing contest. They sang the song in English in front of a live audience as well as on national TV. On Feb. 25, 2007, Jamie entered a Japanese speech contest for foreigners in Shiga and talked about the song. Her speech won 1st place.
On June 16, 2007, we finally produced our CD. It went on sale (800 yen) for the first time during a Lake Biwa cruise where Jamie and Megan sang the song on the boat and on shore on Chikubushima island. The chartered cruise was held to mark the song's 90th anniversary. On the next day, June 17, 2007, Jamie and Megan appeared on the 11th Biwako Shuko no Uta choir contest as guest singers.
Although our CD is for sale, we are also donating it widely to Shiga's public libraries, local boards of education, international associations, tourism associations, and schools.
I'm also putting this song into the public domain. Anyone can copy, record, and reproduce the song. I only ask that my name (Philbert Ono) be credited for the English lyrics.
- You can download the English song's audio file, video clip, and printable music sheet provided by the Download bar at the top of this page. The English song is sung/performed by Jamie and Megan Thompson, English lyrics written by Philbert Ono, and the melody composed by Yoshida Chiaki.
- About the singers: Twin sisters Jamie and Megan Thompson hail from Normal, Illinois, USA. They work as Assistant Language Teachers in the JET Program and have been in Japan since July 2004. Older sister Jamie was based in Konan, Shiga Prefecture until July 2008 when she transferred to Hino, Shiga where she teaches English at a junior high school. She is also a member of the local choir which is where she first heard and fell in love with the song. Megan is in Marugame, Kagawa Prefecture, also in a local choir, and she learned the song from her sister in Shiga whom she often visits. Both have been singing in choirs since childhood. They will be in Japan until mid-2009. I could not have met a better and more suitable pair of singers, women, or people to sing and record the song for the first time.
Lake Biwa Rowing Song CD
A year in the making, our Lake Biwa Rowing Song CD went on sale on June 16, 2007 for 800 yen.
- Sung by Jamie & Megan Thompson from Normal, Illinois. (More about them later.)
- English lyrics by Philbert Ono.
- Four tracks: English version (with and without piano music), Japanese version (with piano), and piano karaoke.
- 12-page CD booklet explains the song in English and Japanese and includes the English and Japanese lyrics (Japanese and romanized text).
- Makes a great gift and souvenir of Shiga for your friends and tourists.
- The CD can be used in various ways: As background music at events, as English-teaching material, or as an example on how to sing the song in English (especially if you are in a choir).
- Retail price in Japan 800 yen, including tax.
- Produced by Philbert Ono as an indie CD.
You can order this CD by sending email to email@example.com. State your name and address, the number of CDs you want, preferred shipping method (SAL, air mail, EMS, etc.) and we will give you a price quote. Payment via Paypal, check in US dollars, or wire transfer to our bank. The CD is $8 + shipping. Discount available for large orders (20 copies or more).
The CD is also sold at the Biwako Shuko no Uta Shiryokan song museum in Takashima, Imazu, Shiga. They also accept telephone orders (Phone: 0740-22-2108), but English is not spoken.
In the CD booklet, there are at least two typos. On the first page of the Japanese text (inside of front cover) where Jamie Thompson is introduced, the kanji character for Konan-shi, the city where she is based, is mistaken. Instead of 甲南市, it should be 湖南市. Also on the fourth page in the English text, the fourth paragraph has "an ongoing an adventure." This should be "an ongoing adventure." Sorry folks!
About the English Lyrics
When making the English lyrics, I kept all the place names in the exact same position as in the original Japanese song. So if the Japanese and English versions of the song are sung at the same time, at least the place names would match exactly. This turned out to be a major boon for the English version. Words like Shiga, Omatsugasato, Imazu, Nagahama, Hira, and Ibuki are all sung in the same way as in the Japanese song. People familiar with the Japanese song can sing the place names in the English song in the same way as in the Japanese version.
The Japanese song has six verses with four lines each. Each line is sung as two parts, the first part has seven syllables and the second part has five syllables. For example, the first line: "Wa re wa U mi no Ko" (We're children of the lake) is seven syllables and "sa su ra i no" (off to wander 'round) has five syllables. Almost all the lines follow this 7-5 syllable pattern. When creating the English, it is ideal to match this 7-5 syllable pattern.
At first, I simply created a 7-5 syllable pattern for each line. Later on, when I tried to sing such English lyrics, it did not sound right even though the number of syllables matched. I soon realized that the accent of each word also had to match the high and long notes in the melody. That put me back to the drawing board and I almost had to start all over again. The melody basically alternates between high/long and low notes for each syllable. And so the English also had to have alternating accents. Unlike translating haiku or tanka poetry where you just need to match the number of syllables, a translated song also requires accented syllables (or long vowels) at the right places.
Almost all the lines start with the second syllable being accented. Therefore, for the first word in each line, I had to use a word whose second syllable was accented. Or use a single-syllable word followed by a word whose first syllable was accented. For example, "Today is Imazu" is fine (accented syllables in bold), but "Is today Imazu" does not match the melody because the second syllable in the line is not accented. Since the second syllable of "today" is accented, I can use it as the first word in the line, but I cannot use it as the second word because the accent is not on the first syllable "to."
Another frequent problem was that the English words could be made much shorter than the Japanese. For example, Verse 2 says "Green pines on white sands" in Japanese. But this is too few syllables and I had to insert filler words to match the melody. This line then became "Pine trees are very green, on sands very white."
Verse 5 also has "Arrows buried deeply" in Japanese. Being too short in English, this line was expanded to "Sharp arrows buried deeply, way into the ground." The English lyrics therefore have some filler words to increase the number of syllables to match the melody. Of course, when you do this, you are liable to change the meaning and stray from the meaning of the original song. So I carefully chose filler words which did not affect the meaning significantly.
Matching the melody was tough enough, but matching the original meaning of the song at the same time was sometimes impossible. Especially when the meaning is not clear. Why does it say "coral shrine" when the lake has no coral? In such cases, I had to incorporate my own interpretation. I also declined to make the lyrics rhyme. I found it near impossible to make any words rhyme without changing the meaning too much. I think it sounds fine even if it does not rhyme.
It is quite rare to create an English version of a Japanese song matching both the Japanese meaning and melody. For example, most Japanese anime theme songs converted into English do not match the meaning of the original Japanese. And remember the song "Sukiyaki" by Sakamoto Kyu? The English version created by A Taste of Honey (and later sung by other artists) does not match the meaning of the original Japanese song.
I do not claim that my English version is perfect nor the official English version, but it still conveys the gist of the original song very well.
The annotated lyrics of the entire song are as follows. My English lyrics are followed by the Japanese lyrics and romanization. To see or print out the English lyrics only (no annotations), click here.
Verse 1 Lyrics (Otsu)
English lyrics: Philbert Ono
We're children of the lake, off to wander 'round.
This journey fills my heart with, intense happiness.
Rising mist evaporates, ripples come and go.
Shiga's Miyako dear, bid farewell for now.
Ware wa Umi no Ko, sasurai no
tabi ni shiareba, shimijimi to
Noboru sagiri ya, sazanami no
Shiga no Miyako yo, iza saraba
Although this song is about rowing around Lake Biwa, it is also widely interpreted as a song about life itself. This first verse refers to the start of the rowing trip and the journey of life itself. Great joy is expressed as they undertake this big adventure. The lake mist may symbolize the uncertainty of what lies ahead.
The capital (Miyako) of Shiga is Otsu, where they departed from Mihogasaki boat harbor on June 27, 1917. The kanji for "Umi" is normally pronounced "mizu-umi" (lake). For some reason, the kanji characters for "Shiga" is incorrect for Shiga Prefecture. The school logo was a cherry blossom with the character "san"at the center meaning "three" and the three stripes denoting the No. 3 High School (Dai-san Koto Gakko) which later became part of Kyoto University.
Verse 2 Lyrics (Omatsu/Omi-Maiko)
English lyrics: Philbert Ono
Pine trees are very green, on sands very white.
Omatsugasato is, a young maiden's home.
Bush of red camellia, hides her teary face.
She's weeping o'er a lost love, much too short to last.
Matsu wa midori ni, suna shiroki
Omatsugasato no, otomego wa
Akai tsubaki no, morikage ni
Hakanai koi ni, naku toka ya
Omatsu or Omatsugasato is the old name for Omi-Maiko, today a popular beach in summer with numerous inns and hotels. It is indeed very picturesque with Japanese pine trees growing on a white-sand beach in front of a blue lake (on sunny days).
In June 1917 during the rowing trip, Taro Oguchi described Omatsu as a "lonely place with only one inn" on a postcard he sent to a friend. On the front side of the postcard, he drew a watercolor painting of Omatsu with green pine trees on a white beach. The postcard was mailed from Imazu on June 28, 1917, the second day of the trip.
At that time, there were only three inns in Omatsu, and one of them was Omatsu-kan (雄松館), still in business today amid the pine trees. The inn's staff remember the boys as being very well-mannered, sleeping and waking early, and taking off their caps when saying goodbye. And the boys remember the delicious chicken teriyaki the inn cooked up. There was a small camellia bush near the inn in 1917, but today, Omi-Maiko has no camellia bush.
A major question is, who was that young maiden in Omatsu? Was she for real? Apparently not, but no one knows for sure. An unfulfilled love though, does exist in most of us. In those days, the word "love" (koi or ai) was not normally used in song lyrics. People did not really utter the word "love" to others, even though they felt it. Many alumni love this verse as they can say a word that they couldn't express while in college.
This verse symbolizes one's youth with all its trials and tribulations including falling in love and heartbreak. The green pines and white sand might symbolize freshness, youth, purity, and innocence.
Verse 3 Lyrics (Imazu)
English lyrics: Philbert Ono
We drift from wave to wave, straying aimlessly.
On shore we see red fire, brings back memories.
With our sights set nowhere, rolling with the waves.
Today is Imazu or, Nagahama huh.
Nami no mani mani, tadayoeba
Akai tomaribi, natsukashimi
Yukue sadamenu, nami makura
Kyo wa Imazu ka, Nagahama ka
This verse is about a crossroads in life. It ponders over the question, "What do I want to do with my life?" Do we make life happen, or do we let life happen to us (rolling with the waves)? Such questions many of us have asked ourselves at least once at the start of adulthood. It's easy to identify with this verse.
It is uncertain what exactly "red fire" is. But most people believe it is a red beacon lamp on the pier. In those days, a square lamp was mounted on a wooden post on the end of the pier. The lightbulb was a normal white color, while the lamp's glass facing the lake was red. The lamp glass on the left and right and the side facing land were transparent. The red fire could even be a bon fire on shore or the lights of an inn on shore. Perhaps it symbolizes a guiding light or goal in life where you want to go.
Imazu and Nagahama happen to be on the opposite shores of the lake. The direction to either place is totally different. Any decision will greatly affect the outcome or result. But obviously, they chose to go to Imazu on the western shore in the city of Takashima.
Imazu is called the song's birthplace since it was where Taro Oguchi showed it to his crew and where they first sang it to the melody of Hitsuji-gusa (Water Lilies) at the inn they were staying. It is not known for certain how many verses he had completed nor which Imazu inn they lodged at, but most believe it was Chojiya (丁子屋) which is still in business today.
Imazu was where the song was born. The town is in the northwestern corner of Lake Biwa. It has a small port where you can take a boat to Chikubushima island. Imazu has two monuments for the song. One is the lamp monument built in 1985 on the boat pier for Verse 3 (written on the lamp post), and the other is a red stone monument in the shape of a fire dedicated to the entire song. The lamp monument lights up in red at night.
Nagahama is one of Shiga's largest cities, anchoring the northeast corner of Lake Biwa. Like Imazu, it also has a port where you can take a boat to Chikubushima.
Nagahama is one of Shiga's largest cities, anchoring the northeast corner of Lake Biwa. It also has a port where you can take a boat to Chikubushima.
Verse 4 Lyrics (Chikubushima)
English lyrics: Philbert Ono
Azure blue flower garden, revered coral shrine.
Full of old-time stories, Chikubushima.
In the hands of Buddha, one young maiden lies.
She's sleeping in compassion, resting peacefully.
Ruri no hanazono, sango no miya
Furui tsutae no, Chikubushima
Hotoke no mite ni, idakarete
Nemure otomego, yasurakeku
From Imazu, the boys rowed across the lake and most likely took a break at Chikubushima island in the middle of northern Lake Biwa. It has been a sacred island for centuries with Hogonji Buddhist temple (宝厳寺) first built in 724 and Tsukubusuma Shrine. Both have buildings which are National Treasures. Hogonji is the 30th temple on the Saigoku Pilgrimage circuit.
The first line of this verse is another major mystery as there is no coral in the lake. This has sparked much discussion. Theories range from Chikubushima being like the undersea, red coral palace of the dragon god or it's a contrast of colors with azure blue waters surrounding a coral-red shrine. But we can all agree that it depicts a very beautiful place. The island is worth a visit.
Another question is, who is the young maiden? She might be based on a local legend: Once there was a young maiden in love with a priest on Chikubushima. He told her that he would marry her if she could commute to the island every night across the lake during his priest training. So she got in a wooden barrel and paddled to the island every night. On the last night, the priest felt embarrassed by her and extinguished the temple lights on the island. She therefore could not see where the island was and got lost. A strong wind from the Hira mountains blew and she died in the lake. This verse might have been a prayer for her soul. Taro Oguchi and crew might have prayed for her on the island. That strong wind from the Hira mountains still blows, especially in late March. Some say that it has the spirit of the young maiden who died.
This verse seems to convey a paradise, as in Buddhism. A place where we feel comfortable, relaxed, and peaceful in life. Taro Oguchi was raised by his father to pray in front of the Buddhist altar every day. So the Buddhist overtones in the song (especially in this verse and verse 6) can be attributed to him.
Chikubushima is easily accessible by boat from Nagahama, Hikone, and Imazu. It is a highly recommended sightseeing spot.
Verse 5 Lyrics (Hikone)
English lyrics: Philbert Ono
Sharp arrows buried deeply, way into the ground.
Abundant summer grasses, a moat still remains.
Standing in an old castle, all alone oneself.
Hira and Ibuki too, only but a dream.
Ya no ne wa, fukaku uzumorete
Natsukusa shigeki, hori no ato
Kojo ni hitori, tatazumeba
Hira mo Ibuki mo, yume no goto
This is the only verse where the place is not specifically mentioned. The only hint is "old castle," which must be either Nagahama Castle or Hikone Castle. (Azuchi Castle is also possible, but it is more inland.) It is likely that it is Hikone Castle with its authentic castle tower and moats. Hikone was also where they stopped overnight. (Nagahama was only a lunch stop.) However, they might have deliberately omitted the castle name in order to include both (or all) castles. This is the "aging and reminiscing verse" with referrals to the past.
Hira is a mountain range straddling the west side of Lake Biwa, and Ibuki is Shiga's highest mountain on the east side of Lake Biwa in the city of Maibara.
Since 1973, various sponsors have been building stone monuments for the song. The respective settings of Otsu, Omatsu (Omi-Maiko), Imazu, Chikubushima, and Chomeiji all have a stone monument for their respective verse. But there has been no monument for this 5th verse, perhaps because no place name is mentioned. Finally, just recently in Oct. 2005, a stone monument for this 5th verse was unveiled in Hikone, near the port.
Verse 6 Lyrics (Chomeiji)
English lyrics: Philbert Ono
Saigoku pilgrimage, Chomeiji.
Dispel this world's impureness, very faraway.
Golden waves on which we weave, rowing all we can.
Tell us my friends your stories, with your fervent hearts.
Saigoku Juban, Chomeiji
Kegare no utsushiyo, tooku sarite
Kogane no nami ni, iza kogan
Katare wagatomo, atsuki kokoro
Rowing further down the eastern shore brings us to Omi-Hachiman, a old castle town and merchant town. One of its major temples is Chomeiji, dedicated to long life and good health and belonging to the Tendai Buddhist sect. Located on Mt. Chomeiji facing the lake, the temple has 808 stone steps to climb. It was good exercise for the boys to go to worship.
Chomeiji is also the 31st temple (following Hogonji on Chikubushima) on the Saigoku Pilgrimage circuit of 33 temples scattered in Wakayama, Osaka, Hyogo, Kyoto, Nara, Shiga, and Gifu Prefectures. The Japanese lyrics call Chomeiji the "10th Temple" (Saigoku Juban) of the Saigoku pilgrimage. This is the song's most glaring mistake made on purpose. The "31st" in Japanese had too many syllables to match the song's melody. Therefore, the shorter "10th" was used.
The English lyrics does not include this "10th temple" error which has been substituted by "pilgrimage." Interesting to note that choirs in Omi-Hachiman do not sing "Saigoku Juban" out of respect for Chomeiji, the city's most famous temple. Instead of "Juban," they sing "reijo" 礼所 which means pilgrimage place. Chomeiji's stone monument for this verse shows only the last two lines and omits the mistaken "10th Temple" line.
From Chomeiji, they rowed westward back to Otsu. They could have well seen a golden sunset creating golden waves. It was exciting to be closer to home. These golden waves may also refer to the Pure Land of Buddhism, equivalent to Heaven. For many people, the last line (sung twice) is the favorite as it emotionally conveys camaraderie. Yes, this is a story that must be told.
To help promote the song, we give live performances, hold photo exhibitions, donate CDs as prizes, etc.
- Sports Recreation Shiga 2008, Kenmin Yume Stage, On the morning of the opening ceremony, Jamie and Megan Thompson sang the song on the Kenmin Yuma Stage at Kibogaoka Park, Yasu, Oct. 18, 2008
- Shiga slide show lecture by Philbert included the introduction of the song at the Incoming Students' Orientation, Japan Center for Michigan Universities, Hikone, Jan. 8, 2008.
- Umizukuri Boat Festa, A boat marathon and dragon boat race held as a pre-event of the 27th Yutaka na Umizukuri Conference held on Nov. 11, 2007. Stage entertainment included Jamie Thompson singing the song along with children playing reed flutes (yoshibue). Governor Kada Yukiko also joined Jamie and sang in English. Ogoto, Otsu, Oct. 20, 2007
- Shiga slide show lecture by Philbert included the introduction of the song at the Incoming Students' Orientation, Japan Center for Michigan Universities, Hikone, Sept. 2, 2007
- Biwako Kaitsuburi Regatta 2007 (Sports Masters), Otsu. Lake Biwa Rowing Song CDs donated as prizes. Sept. 16, 2007
- Lake Biwa Citizens Regatta, Setagawa River, Otsu. Lake Biwa Rowing Song CDs donated as prizes. July 29, 2007
- Lake Biwa Rowing Song Photo Exhibition, Maibara, Lucci Plaza, July 19-Aug. 3, 2007
- Lake Biwa Rowing Song Photo Exhibition, Imazu, Shiga, May 30 - June 17, 2007
- Hikone VOICE World Gathering, Jamie sang the song by herself at this international exchange event held by an international association in Hikone. June 24, 2007, Minami-Hikone
- 11th Biwako Shuko no Uta Choir Contest, Jamie and Megan appeared as guest singers and sang Lake Biwa Rowing Song. Imazu, Shiga, June 17, 2007
- Lake Biwa Boat Cruise, For the 90th anniversary of the song, Imazu held a commemorative cruise featuring Jamie and Megan singing the song during the cruise and on Chikubushima. June 16, 2007
- 3rd BNN Japanese Speech Contest by Foreigners, Jamie Thompson wins 1st place, Feb. 25, 2007
- NHK TV Nodo Jiman singing contest, Jamie and Megan appear on national TV on this famous amateur singing contest and sang Lake Biwa Rowing Song. Mitoyo, Kagawa, Nov. 26, 2006
- Lake Biwa Rowing Song unveiling, Our first public performance of the song. Imazu Port, Shiga, June 3, 2006
Recent Media Coverage
- [http://www.nhk.or.jp/otsu/program/610/index.html NHK Otsu TV's Omi-Hatsu 610 news program introduces the Lake Biwa Rowing Song CD, Aug. 13, 2007
- Radio personality Chiho Ono introduces Lake Biwa Rowing Song on FM Shiga (e-radio), June 19, 2007
- Asahi Shimbun's Shiga Edition introduces Lake Biwa Rowing Song CD, June 17, 2007
- Kyoto Shimbun's Shiga Edition covers Lake Biwa Cruise, June 17, 2007
- Chunichi Shimbun's Biwako Edition covers Lake Biwa Rowing Song Photo Exhibition, June 5, 2007
CD in Public Libraries
I am donating the CD to public libraries, mainly in Shiga. Here is a list of libraries and other places where you can borrow or listen to the CD:
- Omi-Hachiman Public Library
- Higashi-Omi Public Libraries (Notogawa, Eigenji, and Koto Branches）
- Hikone Public Library, Hikone International Lounge
- Nagahama: Nagahama Public Library, Biwa Public Library
- Otsu: Otsu Public Library, Wani Public Library
- Maibara: Santo Public Library (Lucci Plaza), Omi Public Library
- On April 1, 1893, the rowing club of the Dai-san Koto Gakko (No. 3 High School 第三高等学校) in Kyoto held a boat-launching ceremony at Mihogasaki pier in Otsu and floated three new, fixed-seat racing row boats developed by Tokyo Imperial University. Seating six crew each, it was the first time these new boats went into the water in the Kansai region. Later after a bon voyage ceremony at 1 pm, 21 crewmates yelled "banzai" three times and started the school's annual tradition of rowing around Lake Biwa.
- That first rowing trip lasted five days during which they did a bit of sightseeing. In those days, the west side (Kosei 湖西) and northern end of the lake had no railway and traveling by boat (or steamer) was the most efficient way (until 1931 when a railway was built on the west side of the lake). So sightseeing by boat was best. They also often encountered heavy rain, high waves, and strong winds. When they finally returned to Mihogasaki pier, they were greeted by 30-40 classmates. They all sang the national anthem "Kimigayo," yelled "banzai," and walked 12 km back to Kyoto at night.
- In the beginning, it was like going to explore a new frontier. It took some guts to do it. But from the second year in 1894, the school started to hold boat races which later included other schools. The school then acquired three more boats, making a total of 6 boats available to students for practice. Students from different departments (even rugby team members) practiced rowing on Lake Biwa, going as far as Omatsu (Omi-Maiko) on weekends. Thus, as the years passed and more people went rowing, the boats and lake became more familiar and almost anyone could go on the rowing trip, instead of just the sports-oriented, hardcore rowers.
- Before merging with Kyoto University, the school never had any fatal rowing accidents on Lake Biwa.
- During the early years, the school's rowing club did have a few rowing songs composed in the Meiji Period (ended in 1912). But by 1917, those old songs seemed out of style so Oguchi Taro decided to compose a new song during his rowing trip.
- Before rowing around the lake, Oguchi already had experience rowing shorter distances on the lake, such as to Omatsu (Omi-Maiko). The first and second verses covering Otsu and Omatsu were probably completed before the rowing trip around the lake in 1917 since he had already visited those places before.
- After Oguchi's fateful rowing trip around the lake in 1917, his song was polished and finalized after a series of meetings with fellow rowers and classmates. The entire song (six verses) was finally completed in 1918 after Oguchi's second rowing trip around the lake in late June (after final exams). The song was publicly announced at the start of the new school year in September 1918. It soon became popular among all the students. There was still no TV and no radio. There was no record either.
- In Oguchi's days, the school started in September and ended in late June.
- Some freshman students joined the boat club after hearing the song and became quite taken by it. However, after going through the club's harsh physical training, some felt duped by the song.
- There are some purists who disdain singer Kato Tokiko's version of the song which became a nationwide hit in 1971. They claim her version sounds mournful instead of a more upbeat and optimistic tone.
- Even among people in Shiga, the song is often confused with another Lake Biwa song called Biwako Aika 琵琶湖哀歌 (Lake Biwa Elegy). This mournful song was dedicated to the eight rowers from the No. 4 High School in Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture and three rowers from Kyoto University who were practicing in waters off Imazu died when they encountered strong winds from the mountains on April 6, 1941.
- Oguchi Taro had an interest in romanizing Japanese. There were two systems at the time, the Kunrei and Hepburn. Influenced by one of his professors, Oguchi favored the Kunrei system and spelled his name " T. Oguti" on his business cards while he worked at the Tokyo Imperial University's aeronautical research institute.
- Although Oguchi's wired and wireless multiplex telegraph and telephone system was patented in eight countries, there is no record of any royalty payments made to Oguchi for this patent. His father renewed the patent, but it later expired.
- The rowing club at Kyoto University today still undertake their annual Lake Biwa rowing trip. However, they no longer row around the lake completely. From Otsu, they only go as far north as Omi-Maiko and Chomeiji, always rowing near the shore and never rowing across the large expanse of the lake. For safety reasons, they cross the lake only at the narrow neck of the lake near the Biwako Ohashi Bridge. They also take turns rowing. Half the team travel by bicycle on shore while keeping track of the rowers in three boats. They do it in three days, stopping overnight at Omi-Maiko and Chomeiji. They start off very early in the morning, around 6 am. See photos here.
Shiga Prefecture has a song monument for each of the six verses of the song. They are located at the respective place mentioned in the verse: Otsu (Mihogasaki), Omi-Maiko (formerly called Omatsu), Imazu, Chikubushima island, Hikone, and Chomeiji.
The first one was built in 1973 for the first verse. Since then, the other song monuments have been built over the years. Finally, in Oct. 2005, a monument for Verse 5 was built at Hikone Port at a cost of 8 million yen gathered through donations. It was the last verse missing a monument. We can now see a stone monument for each of the six verses of the song.
Click on the thumbnails to see a larger image.
Note: Some of the images have been digitally altered (the colors are not real).
See more photos related to the song at Lake Biwa Rowing Song - In Pictures and in English
Directions to song monuments
Verse 1 Monument: From JR Otsu Station, take a bus to Mihogasaki. It's about 10 min. Or you can easily walk it from Hama-Otsu. Just walk on the main road toward the race boat arena. There will be a small marina on the right. Right after passing the marina, turn right into the small road. There will be a small park on the right. The monument is there. It is roped off and you're not supposed to enter the park. While you're there, walk around the marina and see the boathouse with the cherry blossom logo with three stripes. That's the logo of the school and the place where the boys left for the rowing trip in 1917. Otsu Station also has a tourist information office where you can obtain directions and a map.
Verse 2 Monument: Get on the JR Kosei Line and get off at Omi-Maiko Station. After exiting the station, walk left toward Kitahama. Then get to the lake shore and walk along the beach road until you see the monument under a large tree right on the shore. It is in front of Hotel Biwa Lake Otsuka.
Verse 3 Monument: Get on the JR Kosei Line and get off at Omi-Imazu Station. Get out the east exit and walk on the main road toward the lake. You will soon see the song museum on the left. Walk further toward the lake and you will see Imazu Port. There you can see the red flame song monument. On the end of the pier, and you can see the lamp monument. (The pier might be closed off if there is no boat, so you may have to ask permission to walk on the pier.) Omi-Imazu Station also has a tourist information office where you can obtain directions and a map.
Verse 4 Monument: From Imazu Port, Hikone Port, or Nagahama Port), take a boat to Chikubushima island. The monument is right near the pier on the island. Hikone Port is accessible by bus from JR Hikone Station, and Nagahama Port is walkable from JR Nagahama Station.
Verse 5 Monument: From JR Hikone Station on the JR Biwako Line, take a bus to Hikone-ko Port. The monument is behind the harbor building (where boats to Chikubushima embark) near the lake shore. If you visit the castle on the same day, you can walk to the port from the castle. Hikone Station also has a tourist information office where you can obtain directions and a map.
Verse 6 Monument: From Omi-Hachiman Station on the JR Biwako Line, take a bus to Chomeiji. It takes about 20 min. You can also rent a bicycle at the station and follow the map to Chomeiji Port or the steps to Chomeiji Temple. The monument is in a small park in front of the port. From the bus stop, it's right there. Omi-Hachiman Station also has a tourist information office where you can obtain directions and a map.
- Lake Biwa Rowing Song - In Pictures
- Photos of places related to the song
- Photos of song monuments
- Newspaper articles
- Public performances
- Oguchi Taro photos
- Rowing Round Lake Biwa by Kyoto University Rowing Club
- Rowing Across Lake Biwa by Imazu Jr. High Rowing Club
- Uminoko Floating School photos
- Biwako Shuko no Uta - In Japanese
- Oguchi Taro - Songwriter
- Yoshida Chiaki - Song composer
- Biwako Shuko no Uta Shiryokan - Song museum in Imazu, Shiga.
- Biwako Aika - Lake Biwa Elegy
- Shiga Prefecture
- History of Shiga Prefecture
- shiga-ken.com - Photo guide to Shiga Prefecture.
- Buy DVD video - High-resolution video of Jamie and Megan Thompson singing Lake Biwa Rowing Song in Japanese and English. Subtitled with the Japanese and English lyrics.
- Buy postcards - Set of six cards, one for each verse. Includes Japanese and English lyrics.
- Takashima City Hall - See their song page in English.
- 「琵琶湖周航の歌 〜千秋と太郎の出会いの日〜」監修／飯田忠義、今津町、2004年3月31日出版