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A large banner adorns JR Matsudo Station (Joban Line) to celebrate Matsudo native and astronaut Yamazaki Naoko's return to Earth from her Space Shuttle mission in April 2010.
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Naoko Yamazaki went on her first space flight aboard Space Shuttle Discovery on April 5, 2010 and spent almost 2 weeks on the International Space Station. She returned on April 20, 2010 to Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
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Posters celebrating Naoko's return were all over central Matsudo.
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The Matsudo Tourist Association has a show window in Matsudo Station showing local products and a poster of Naoko.
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On May 22, 2010, the city of Matsudo in Chiba Prefecture held a welcome home ceremony and parade for astronaut Naoko Yamazaki who came to visit during a brief visit to Japan.
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Little flags and banners festooned the 500-meter parade route. 道路上街灯にフラッグ
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The parade route started on this narrow road near Matsudo Station, coming from Isetan Dept. Store.
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The parade route was fenced off.
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They provided free paper flags for spectators.
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Staff passing out free paper flags.
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The paper flag had Naoko Yamazaki's official logo for the STS-131 mission. (See high-quality image below.)
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Isetan Dept. Store in Matsudo had a large vertical banner welcoming Naoko's return.
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The small plaza in front of Isetan served as the venue for Naoko Yamazaki's welcome home ceremony. They had a small, elevated stage. The place was divided into squares for people to stand in.
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Sign for Naoko Yamazaki's welcome home ceremony and parade. They also passed out little flyers written with the day's schedule.
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By 1:30 pm, the place was getting quite full of people. I was standing not too close to the stage. The ceremony was to start at 2:15 pm. First the marching band played.
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When Naoko Yamazaki arrived by car, people started to wave the paper flags as she made her way to the stage. People behind the people in front couldn't see much because of the flags.
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First, Matsudo Mayor Toshihisa Kawai said a few words to welcome Naoko back to Earth and to her hometown of Matsudo. 伊勢丹前広場にてオープニングセレモニー
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Matsudo Mayor Toshihisa Kawai at Naoko Yamazaki's welcome home ceremony in Matsudo, Chiba Prefecture. The man on the right is the Matsudo Board of Education Superintendent. Hidden by the mayor is Speaker of the Matsudo City Assembly.
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People wave flags again as Naoko Yamazaki is introduced to speak during her homecoming ceremony in Matsudo, Chiba.
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The plaza in front of Isetan was quite full. We were warned that we wouldn't be able to see the welcome parade afterward because they would block off the street from us. However, it was still possible for us to see the parade.
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Naoko Yamazaki speaks, thanking everyone for their support and encouragement. 山崎直子宇宙飛行士 帰還報告会
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"I'm happy to be from Matsudo..." Also see my video at YouTube to hear her entire speech. 帰還の報告
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Her biography by NASA is here.
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She spoke for only a few minutes.
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Representatives from the Young Astronaut Club gave her a flag and bouquet of flowers. フラッグ、花束贈呈
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Naoko Yamazaki at her homecoming ceremony in Matsudo, Chiba. She was inspired to become an astronaut when she saw a school teacher fly on the space shuttle when she was growing up in the 1980s.
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The same banner found in Matsudo Station also hung above the stage.
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The ceremony was over by 2:30 pm, and she then hopped in a convertible for the parade. After the ceremony was over, I rushed out and ran to the parade route in front of Matsudo Station.
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People line the parade route. The parade started at about 2:35 pm.
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The parade route went around a few blocks and returned to Isetan. The first stretch of the route was here where they threw confetti. Thanks to my friend Gary for these confetti shots.
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Naoko Yamazaki in a black convertible. Ever since the Challenger disaster in 1986 when Ellison Onizuka from Hawaii died (I never got over it), I always viewed the Space Shuttle as a risky vehicle. Even today, so many things can and do go wrong in space.
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So I really prayed that Discovery would return safely to Earth. Because if there were another tragic accident, it would be too much of a heartbreak. Japanese-Americans lost Ellison, and if the Japanese lost Naoko, I can't even bear to think about it.
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And so I had to see and welcome her home too. Japan-America relations at its finest, on the highest level, literally. This is near Matsudo Station. Her car was escorted by the Guardian Angels and security guards.
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There she is, my first good shot of her. Many people called out to her and she acknowledged with a wave and photogenic smile.
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She's a very attractive and charming-looking lady. Cream of the cream. Yes, she's the first Japanese mom to fly into space, but she's very bright. Graduate of Univ. of Tokyo in aeronautical engineering.
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Whenever someone goes into space, there was always something that's first. She's the first Japanese mom in space. The first time more than one Japanese were in space. The first time four women were in space.
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The parade started with this group of flag twirlers.
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The flag dancers were followed by a marching band from the fire dept. 消防音楽隊
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The marching band was followed by a group of kids belonging to the Young Astronaut Club, an educational club.
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The banner reads, "Welcome home, Yamazaki Naoko" 日本宇宙少年団千葉スペースボイジャー分団員
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Behind the kids was Naoko Yamazaki's convertible from which she tirelessly waved and smiled.
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After the parade, she went to her junior high school and gave a talk to hundreds of elementary and junior high school students. She spent the night at her parents' home in Matsudo.
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Here are a few of my rapid-fire shots of her when she passed by me the second and last time. It was too crowded to chase her any more.
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Naoko Yamazaki in her homecoming parade in Matsudo, Chiba. Also see my video at YouTube.
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It's mind-boggling to see how much training she went through during 11 years or so before she actually went into space. It must've been hard on her husband and daughter, but they stuck it out and must be very proud.
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JAXA Astronaut Naoko Yamazaki at her welcome home parade in Matsudo, Chiba Prefecture on May 22, 2010.
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Naoko's car was followed by the mayor's car.
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As soon as Naoko's car passed by, a huge wave of people rolled in to chase her and see her again. I was barely able to get these last two shots of her.
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Luckily she turned my way when I took this shot.
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Along the final stretch of the too-short parade route, the huge crowd followed her. The parade ended at about 3 pm.
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My embedded YouTube video of Naoko Yamazaki's homecoming parade in Matsudo.
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2 Nov. 2009 --- Astronaut Naoko Yamazaki's official portrait by NASA. The following photos are from NASA or JAXA.Read her preflight interview by NASA here.
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STS-131 poster by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency).
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17 August 2004 --- Naoko Yamazaki, ASCAN Class of 2004, representing the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).17 August 2004 --- Naoko Yamazaki, ASCAN Class of 2004, representing the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
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2003 July 2 -- Naoko Yamazaki looking younger in 2003. Notice that her name badge still reads "Naoko Sumino," her maiden name. (JAXA photo)
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2010 March 5 --- Naoko during the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test.
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29 Jan. 2010 --- Naoko Yamazaki, attired in a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit, poses for a photo prior to the start of an ingress/egress training session...29 Jan. 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, attired in a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit, poses for a photo prior to the start of an ingress/egress training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center.
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9 Dec. 2009 --- Naoko Yamazaki participates in a training session in one of the full-scale trainers in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility...9 Dec. 2009 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, participates in a training session in one of the full-scale trainers in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Attired in a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit, Yamazaki is seated on the middeck for a post insertion/de-orbit training session.
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17 Sept. 2009 --- Naoko Yamazaki dons a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit in preparation for a water survival training session...17 Sept. 2009 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, dons a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit in preparation for a water survival training session in the waters of the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) near NASA's Johnson Space Center.
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14 Sept. 2009 --- Naoko Yamazaki, attired in a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit, participates in a training session...14 Sept. 2009 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, attired in a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit, participates in a training session near one of the full-scale trainers in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center.
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Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, attired in a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit, awaits the start of a training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center.14 Sept. 2009 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, attired in a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit, awaits the start of a training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center.
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2007 April 20 -- Naoko at the NASA booth at the 2007 Grand Prix of Houston auto race. (JAXA photo)
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2009 Dec. 2 -- Logo for Naoko Yamazaki's STS-131 Mission. The image on the logo is of a seed encompassing life in space and continuing to grow into a new life, a new age in space...The STS-130/19A mission is the final assembly mission of the International Space Station (ISS), a symbol of international cooperation. Astronaut Yamazaki is the first Japanese woman to be assigned as a NASA Mission Specialist and is scheduled to fly to the ISS. She is also the eighth Japanese to fly to space, represented on the logo by eight four-leaved clovers.
The image on the logo is of a seed encompassing life in space and continuing to grow into a new life, a new age in space. It was designed with the hope of leading all life within the universe to a better future. Moreover, the logo is made with the hope that the technology and knowledge cultivated through ISS missions, including those in the Japanese Experiment Module “Kibo,” will be used to enrich the future of the Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Finally, we hope that life in the future will grow to play an active role on both the Earth and in space.
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21 Oct. 2009 --- Attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits, these seven astronauts take a break from training to pose for the STS-131 crew portrait.21 Oct. 2009 --- Attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits, these seven astronauts take a break from training to pose for the STS-131 crew portrait. Seated are NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter (right), commander; and James P. Dutton Jr., pilot. Pictured from the left (standing) are NASA astronauts Rick Mastracchio, Stephanie Wilson, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki and NASA astronaut Clayton Anderson, all mission specialists.
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Official poster for STS-131. Looks like a movie poster, except that this adventure is for real (even though the poster makes it look like it's not real).
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9 Dec. 2009 --- The STS-131 crew members, attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits, take a moment to pose for a crew photo prior to a training session...9 Dec. 2009 --- The STS-131 crew members, attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits, take a moment to pose for a crew photo prior to a training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Pictured from the left are NASA astronauts Clayton Anderson and Stephanie Wilson, both mission specialists; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Alan Poindexter, commander; Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki and NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, all mission specialists.
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2010 March 5 -- After emergency escape training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test, the crew poses for a picture at Kennedy Space Center.
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2010 March 4-- Crew poses in front of the launch pad before the start of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test, a simulation of the final hours of a launch countdown.
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2010 April 1 -- STS-131 crew are ready for launch as they arrive at Kennedy Space Center via a NASA jet.
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29 April 2010 --- Members of the STS-131 Ascent flight control team and crew members pose for a group portrait in the space shuttle flight control room in the Mission Control Center...29 April 2010 --- The members of the STS-131 Ascent flight control team and crew members pose for a group portrait in the space shuttle flight control room in the Mission Control Center at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Flight director Bryan Lunney and NASA astronaut Alan Poindexter, commander, (left center) stand on the second row. Additional crew members pictured are NASA astronauts James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Clayton Anderson, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie Wilson, Rick Mastracchio and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, all mission specialists.
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STS-131 Mission patch and logo.
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13 October 2004 --- From the left, JAXA astronauts Satoshi Furukawa, Akihiko Hoshide and Naoko Yamazaki discover the joy of weightlessness aboard a KC-135, reduced gravity aircraft.13 October 2004 --- From the left, JAXA astronauts Satoshi Furukawa, Akihiko Hoshide and Naoko Yamazaki discover the joy of weightlessness as they join members of NASA's 2004 class of astronaut candidates for a familiarization flight aboard a KC-135, reduced gravity aircraft
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23-26 August 2004 --- Astronaut Naoko Yamazaki boils water over a campfire during 2004 ASCAN land survival training in the wilderness of Maine.
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21-25 June 2004 --- Naoko Yamazaki learns about the operation of a life raft during water survival training at Pensacola Naval Air Station.
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2009 Sept. 18 -- Naoko Yamazaki undergoes water survival training at Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory in Johnson Space Center. (JAXA/NASA photo)
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2008 March 15 -- Naoko Yamazaki working as J-COM at the Kibo Mission Control at Tsukuba Space Center, Ibaraki Prefecture. She is helping Takao Doi install the Kibo module at the International Space Station. (JAXA photo)
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Naoko Yamazaki uses the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of her duties aboard the space shuttle and space station.25 Sept. 2009 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, uses the virtual reality lab in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center to train for some of her duties aboard the space shuttle and space station. This type of computer interface, paired with virtual reality training hardware and software, helps to prepare the entire team for dealing with space station elements.
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12 Jan. 2010 --- Naoko Yamazaki participates in a Thermal Protection System (TPS) Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS) training session...12 Jan. 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, participates in a Thermal Protection System (TPS) Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS) training session in the Jake Garn Simulation and Training Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center.
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2009 Aug. 26 -- In a domed simulator, Naoko Yamazaki(right) and Stephanie Wilson practice manipulating the space shuttle's robot arm (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System: SRMS).Shuttle Remote Manipulator System: SRMS
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10 Feb. 2010 --- Naoko Yamazaki (center), along with NASA astronauts Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger (background) and Stephanie Wilson participate in an ingress/egress time...10 Feb. 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki (center), along with NASA astronauts Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger (background) and Stephanie Wilson, all STS-131 mission specialists, participate in an ingress/egress timeline training session in a shuttle mock-up in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center.
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2 Feb. 2005 --- NASA?s 2004 class of astronaut candidates participates in a galley training session in the Crew Compartment Trainer...2 Feb. 2005 --- NASA?s 2004 class of astronaut candidates participates in a galley training session in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT-2) in the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center. Pictured (seated, from back to front) are Christopher J. (Chris) Cassidy, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, Jose M. Hernandez and Richard R. (Ricky) Arnold II.
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2010 March 2 -- Naoko arrives Kennedy Space Center for the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test.
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2010 March 4 --- Training for emergency escape during the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test at Kennedy Space Center.
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2009 May 15 -- Checking the fit of her pressurized suit at Johnson Space Center.
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9 Dec. 2009 --- Naoko Yamazaki dons a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit in preparation for a training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility...9 Dec. 2009 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, dons a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit in preparation for a training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. United Space Alliance suit technician Toni Cost-Davis assisted Yamazaki.
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Naoko Yamazaki gets help in the donning of her shuttle launch and entry suit in preparation for a water survival training session...17 Sept. 2009 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, gets help in the donning of her shuttle launch and entry suit in preparation for a water survival training session in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) near NASA's Johnson Space Center. United Space Alliance suit technicians assisted Yamazaki.
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29 Jan. 2010 --- Naoko Yamazaki, attired in a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit, awaits the start of an ingress/egress training session...29 Jan. 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, attired in a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit, awaits the start of an ingress/egress training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center.
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United Space Alliance crew trainer Robert (Rob) Tomaro briefs Naoko Yamazaki in preparation for a water survival training session...17 Sept. 2009 --- United Space Alliance crew trainer Robert (Rob) Tomaro briefs Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, in preparation for a water survival training session in the waters of the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) near NASA's Johnson Space Center. Yamazaki is wearing a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit.
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Naoko Yamazaki, attired in a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit, participates in a training session in one of the full-scale trainers in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at Johnson Space Center.14 Sept. 2009 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, attired in a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit, participates in a training session in one of the full-scale trainers in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center.
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14 Sept. 2009 --- Attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits, the STS-131 crew members await the start of a training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at Johnson Space Center.14 Sept. 2009 --- Attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits, the STS-131 crew members await the start of a training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Pictured from the left are Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, mission specialist; NASA astronauts James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Alan Poindexter, commander; Stephanie Wilson, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Clay Anderson and Rick Mastracchio, all mission specialists.
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Naoko Yamazaki (left) and NASA astronaut Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits, await the start of an ingress/egress training session...29 Jan. 2010) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki (left) and NASA astronaut Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, both STS-131 mission specialists, attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits, await the start of an ingress/egress training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center.
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2010 March 5 --- Naoko gives the thumbs up as she heads for Space Shuttle Discovery for the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test.
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2010 March 5 --- For the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test, Naoko Yamazaki is about to board Space Shuttle Discovery.
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2010 March 5 --- During the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test, the crew sit in Space Shuttle Discovery for a countdown simulation. In the middle is Naoko.
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10 March 2010 --- The STS-131 crew members pose for a photo during a cake-cutting ceremony in the Jake Garn Simulation and Training Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center.10 March 2010 --- The STS-131 crew members pose for a photo during a cake-cutting ceremony in the Jake Garn Simulation and Training Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Pictured from the left are NASA astronauts Rick Mastracchio, mission specialist; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Alan Poindexter, commander; Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie Wilson, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Naoko Yamazaki and NASA astronaut Clayton Anderson, all mission specialists.
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5 April 2010 --- After suiting up, the STS-131 crew members exit the Operations and Checkout Building to board the Astrovan...5 April 2010 --- After suiting up, the STS-131 crew members exit the Operations and Checkout Building to board the Astrovan, which will take them to launch pad 39A for the launch of space shuttle Discovery on the STS-131 mission. On the right (front to back) are NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; Rick Mastracchio, Stephanie Wilson and Clayton Anderson, all mission specialists. On the left (front to back) are NASA astronauts James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, both mission specialists. Liftoff of the STS-131 mission is set for 6:21 a.m. (EDT) on April 5. On STS-131, the seven-member crew will deliver the multi-purpose logistics module Leonardo, filled with supplies, a new crew sleeping quarters and science racks that will be transferred to the International Space Station's laboratories. The crew also will switch out a gyroscope on the station's truss structure, install a spare ammonia storage tank and retrieve a Japanese experiment from the station's exterior. STS-131 is the 33rd shuttle mission to the station and the 131st shuttle mission overall.
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5 April 2010 --- After suiting up, the STS-131 crew members exit the Operations and Checkout Building to board the Astrovan, which will take them to launch pad 39A for the launch of space shuttle Discovery on the STS-131 mission. On the right (front to back) are NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; Rick Mastracchio, Stephanie Wilson and Clayton Anderson, all mission specialists. On the left (front to back) are NASA astronauts James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, both mission specialists. Liftoff of the STS-131 mission is set for 6:21 a.m. (EDT) on April 5. On STS-131, the seven-member crew will deliver the multi-purpose logistics module Leonardo, filled with supplies, a new crew sleeping quarters and science racks that will be transferred to the International Space Station's laboratories. The crew also will switch out a gyroscope on the station's truss structure, install a spare ammonia storage tank and retrieve a Japanese experiment from the station's exterior. STS-131 is the 33rd shuttle mission to the station and the 131st shuttle mission overall.
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5 April 2010 --- After suiting up, the STS-131 crew members pause alongside the Astrovan to wave farewell to onlookers before heading for launch pad 39A...5 April 2010 --- After suiting up, the STS-131 crew members pause alongside the Astrovan to wave farewell to onlookers before heading for launch pad 39A for the launch of space shuttle Discovery on the STS-131 mission. From the right are NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Rick Mastracchio, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie Wilson, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki and NASA astronaut Clayton Anderson, all mission specialists. Liftoff of the STS-131 mission is set for 6:21 a.m. (EDT) on April 5. On STS-131, the seven-member crew will deliver the multi-purpose logistics module Leonardo, filled with supplies, a new crew sleeping quarters and science racks that will be transferred to the International Space Station's laboratories. The crew also will switch out a gyroscope on the station's truss structure, install a spare ammonia storage tank and retrieve a Japanese experiment from the station's exterior. STS-131 is the 33rd shuttle mission to the station and the 131st shuttle mission overall.
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5 April 2010 --- Space shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-131 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station.(5 April 2010) --- Space shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-131 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 6:21 a.m. (EDT) on April 5, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Rick Mastracchio, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie Wilson and Clayton Anderson; along with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the multi-purpose logistics module Leonardo, filled with supplies, a new crew sleeping quarters and science racks that will be transferred to the International Space Station's laboratories. The crew also will switch out a gyroscope on the station's truss structure, install a spare ammonia storage tank and retrieve a Japanese experiment from the station's exterior. STS-131 is the 33rd shuttle mission to the station and the 131st shuttle mission overall.
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Liftoff was at 6:21 a.m. (EDT) on April 5, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. 5 April 2010 --- Space shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-131 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 6:21 a.m. (EDT) on April 5, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center.
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GO! GO! GO!
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5 April 2010 --- Time-elapsed photography captures space shuttle Discovery's path to orbit. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida was at 6:21 a.m. (EDT) April 5, 2010 on the STS-131 mission.5 April 2010 --- Time-elapsed photography captures space shuttle Discovery's path to orbit. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida was at 6:21 a.m. (EDT) April 5, 2010 on the STS-131 mission. Onboard are NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Rick Mastracchio, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie Wilson and Clayton Anderson; along with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, all mission specialists. The seven-member crew will deliver the multi-purpose logistics module Leonardo, filled with supplies, a new crew sleeping quarters and science racks that will be transferred to the International Space Station's laboratories. The crew also will switch out a gyroscope on the station's truss structure, install a spare ammonia storage tank and retrieve a Japanese experiment from the station's exterior. STS-131 is the 33rd shuttle mission to the station and the 131st shuttle mission overall.
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The International Space Station.17 April 2010 --- The International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an STS-131 crew member on space shuttle Discovery after the station and shuttle began their post-undocking relative separation. Undocking of the two spacecraft occurred at 7:52 a.m. (CDT) on April 17, 2010.
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Sapce Shuttle Discovery approaches the International Space Station.
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7 April 2010 --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov (far left), Expedition 23 commander, prepares to greet the STS-131 crew as it comes aboard the International Space Station7 April 2010 --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov (far left), Expedition 23 commander, prepares to greet the STS-131 crew as it comes aboard the International Space Station to spend several days in a number of busy joint activities for the two crews. Seen clearly in the hatch are astronaut Alan Poindexter, STS-131 commander, and Japan Aerospace Agency astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, mission specialist.
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April 2010 --- Astronaut Alan Poindexter, STS-131 mission commander who has led the Discovery crew on its mission to the International Space Station, displays a pleasant countenance as the hatches come open7 April 2010 --- Astronaut Alan Poindexter, STS-131 mission commander who has led the Discovery crew on its mission to the International Space Station, displays a pleasant countenance as the hatches come open and two crews begin their traditional handshakes aboard the orbital outpost. Behind Poindexter is Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, mission specialist.
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5 April 2010 --- Naoko Yamazaki flashes the peace sign on the flight deck of space shuttle Discovery during postlaunch activities.5 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, is pictured on the flight deck of space shuttle Discovery during postlaunch activities.
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12 April 2010 --- Naoko Yamazaki watches a water bubble float freely between her and the camera, showing her image refracted , on the middeck of space shuttle Discovery...12 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, watches a water bubble float freely between her and the camera, showing her image refracted, on the middeck of space shuttle Discovery while docked with the International Space Station.
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10 April 2010 --- Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, floats freely in the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module.10 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, floats freely in the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) linked to the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.
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Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, floats freely in the Leonardo Multi-purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) linked to the International Space Station...15 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, floats freely in the Leonardo Multi-purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) linked to the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.
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6 April 2010 --- Naoko Yamazaki floats through a hatch on the middeck of space shuttle Discovery during flight day three activities.6 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, floats through a hatch on the middeck of space shuttle Discovery during flight day three activities.
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10 April 2010 --- Naoko Yamazaki works with the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) in the Destiny laboratory...10 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, works with the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station. WORF will provide cameras, multispectral and hyperspectral scanners, camcorders and other instruments to capture Earth imagery through Destiny's nadir window.
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14 April 2010 --- Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, eats a snack in the Kibo laboratory...14 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, eats a snack in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.
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Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, works at a robotic workstation in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.15 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, works at a robotic workstation in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.
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10 April 2010 --- Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, works in the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module.10 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, works in the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) linked to the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.
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14 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, is pictured in a window of the Cupola for operating the robotic arm.14 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, is pictured in a window of the Cupola of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station. The Cupola enables direct visibility of the robotic arm instead of relying on monitors.
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Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, poses for a photo in the Cupola of the International Space Station.17 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, poses for a photo in the Cupola of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.
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7 April 2010 -- Marking the first occasion of more than one Japanese astronaut onboard any space vehicle at any time in history, JAXA astronauts Soichi Noguchi and Naoko Yamazaki reunite in the Japanese Kibo laboratory7 April 2010 -- Marking the first occasion of more than one astronaut representing the Japan Aerospace Space Agency onboard any space vehicle at any time in history, JAXA astronauts Soichi Noguchi and Naoko Yamazaki reunite in the Japanese Kibo laboratory aboard the International Space Station shortly after it docked with the space shuttle Discovery on April 7. Noguchi, Expedition 22/23 flight engineer, is in the back end of a six month stay aboard the orbital complex. Yamazaki is a mission specialist with the STS-131 crew.
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Soichi Noguchi, Expedition 23 flight engineer; and Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, pose for a photo in the Kibo laboratory.14 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronauts Soichi Noguchi, Expedition 23 flight engineer; and Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, pose for a photo in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.
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12 April 2010 --- Naoko Yamazaki (left), STS-131 mission specialist; and Soichi Noguchi, Expedition 23 flight engineer, pose for a photo near a window in the Kibo laboratory...12 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronauts Naoko Yamazaki (left), STS-131 mission specialist; and Soichi Noguchi, Expedition 23 flight engineer, pose for a photo near a window in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.
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6 April 2010 --- Naoko Yamazaki is in the hatch which connects the flight deck and middeck of space shuttle Discovery during flight day two activities.6 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, is pictured in the hatch which connects the flight deck and middeck of space shuttle Discovery during flight day two activities. NASA astronaut Alan Poindexter, commander, is at right.
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7 April 2010 --- For the first time, four women were in space.7 April 2010 --- The four women currently on the International Space Station pose for a photo in the Zvezda Service Module while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station. From the left are NASA astronaut Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, both STS-131 mission specialists; along with NASA astronauts Tracy Caldwell Dyson, Expedition 23 flight engineer; and Stephanie Wilson, STS-131 mission specialist.
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The four women currently on the International Space Station pose for a photo in the Zvezda Service Module while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.7 April 2010 --- The four women currently on the International Space Station pose for a photo in the Zvezda Service Module while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station. Pictured clockwise from the lower left are NASA astronauts Tracy Caldwell Dyson, Expedition 23 flight engineer; NASA astronaut Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki and NASA astronaut Stephanie Wilson, all STS-131 mission specialists.
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14 April 2010 --- The four women currently on the International Space Station pose for a photo in the Cupola while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station...14 April 2010 --- The four women currently on the International Space Station pose for a photo in the Cupola while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station. Pictured clockwise (from the lower right) are NASA astronauts Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie Wilson, both STS-131 mission specialists; and Tracy Caldwell Dyson, Expedition 23 flight engineer; along with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist.
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7 April 2010 --- NASA astronaut Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger (left) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Naoko Yamazaki appear especially happy to be aboard the International Space Station shortly after the Discovery docked with the orbital o7 April 2010 --- NASA astronaut Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger (left) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Naoko Yamazaki appear especially happy to be aboard the International Space Station shortly after the Discovery docked with the orbital outpost. Each of the two mission specialists is enjoying her first trip into space, and the two are joined by two other women and nine men for several days of joint activities as work continues on the station.
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14 April 2010 --- STS-131 and Expedition 23 crew members share a meal in the Unity node of the International Space Station. Naoko wears a pink kimono.14 April 2010 --- STS-131 and Expedition 23 crew members share a meal in the Unity node of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station. Pictured are Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov, Expedition 23 commander; Mikhail Kornienko and Alexander Skvortsov, both Expedition 23 flight engineers; NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, STS-131 commander; James P. Dutton Jr., STS-131 pilot; Clayton Anderson, STS-131 mission specialist; Tracy Caldwell Dyson and T.J. Creamer, both Expedition 23 flight engineers; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronauts Soichi Noguchi, Expedition 23 flight engineer; and Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist.
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Naoko and Soichi make maki-sushi for the crew, using seaweed wrapper, rice, and shellfish. Naoko also played a miniature koto (Japanese harp).
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9 April 2010 --- The seven STS-131 crew members are seen in Japan's Kibo laboratory during a video downlink. That's a Canon camcorder in the foreground.9 April 2010 --- The seven STS-131 crew members -- working guests for several days aboard the International Space Station -- are seen in Japan's Kibo laboratory during a video downlink to the ground. NASA astronaut Alan Poindexter is at bottom center. Others pictured are astronauts James P. Dutton Jr. (top edge of frame), pilot; and Rick Mastracchio (from far left), Clayton Anderson, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger and Stephanie Wilson, along with Japan's Naoko Yamazaki, all mission specialists.
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STS-131 and Expedition 23 crew members gather for a group portrait in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.14 April 2010 --- STS-131 and Expedition 23 crew members gather for a group portrait in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station. STS-131 crew members pictured (light blue shirts) are NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Clayton Anderson, Rick Mastracchio, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie Wilson and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, all mission specialists. Expedition 23 crew members pictured are Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov, commander; Mikhail Kornienko and Alexander Skvortsov; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Soichi Noguchi, and NASA astronauts T.J. Creamer and Tracy Caldwell Dyson, all flight engineers.
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14 April 2010 --- The STS-131 crew members pose for a portrait in the Cupola of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station. 14 April 2010 --- The STS-131 crew members pose for a portrait in the Cupola of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station. Pictured counter-clockwise (from top left) are NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Rick Mastracchio, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, NASA astronauts Clayton Anderson and Stephanie Wilson, all mission specialists.
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18 April 2010 --- The STS-131 crew members pose for an in-flight portrait on the aft flight deck of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Discovery...18 April 2010 --- The STS-131 crew members pose for an in-flight portrait on the aft flight deck of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Discovery. Pictured on the front row are NASA astronaut Alan Poindexter, commander; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki (left) and NASA astronaut Stephanie Wilson, both mission specialists. Pictured from the left (back row) are NASA astronauts James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Clayton Anderson, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger and Rick Mastracchio, all mission specialists.
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14 April 2010 --- STS-131 and Expedition 23 crew members gather for a group portrait in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station...14 April 2010 --- STS-131 and Expedition 23 crew members gather for a group portrait in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station. STS-131 crew members pictured (light blue shirts) are NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Clayton Anderson, Rick Mastracchio, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie Wilson and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, all mission specialists. Expedition 23 crew members pictured are Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov, commander; Mikhail Kornienko and Alexander Skvortsov; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Soichi Noguchi, and NASA astronauts T.J. Creamer and Tracy Caldwell Dyson, all flight engineers.
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STS-131 and Expedition 23 crew members gather for a group portrait in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station...14 April 2010 --- STS-131 and Expedition 23 crew members gather for a group portrait in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station. STS-131 crew members pictured (light blue shirts) are NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Clayton Anderson, Rick Mastracchio, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie Wilson and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, all mission specialists. Expedition 23 crew members pictured are Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov, commander; Mikhail Kornienko and Alexander Skvortsov; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Soichi Noguchi, and NASA astronauts T.J. Creamer and Tracy Caldwell Dyson, all flight engineers.
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20 April 2010 --- The space shuttle Discovery is seen as it lands at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida, on April 20, 2010.20 April 2010 --- The space shuttle Discovery is seen as it lands at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida, on April 20, 2010. Discovery and the STS-131 mission crew, NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Rick Mastracchio, Stephanie Wilson, Clayton Anderson and Japanese astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, all mission specialists, returned from their mission to the International Space Station. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls
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Space shuttle Discovery lands on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida at 9:08 a.m. (EDT) on April 20, 2010.20 April 2010 --- Space shuttle Discovery lands on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida at 9:08 a.m. (EDT) on April 20, 2010, completing the 15-day STS-131 mission to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown was at 9:08:35 a.m. followed by nose gear touchdown at 9:08:47 a.m. and wheels stop at 9:09:33 a.m. Aboard are NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Rick Mastracchio, Stephanie Wilson, Clayton Anderson and Japanese astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, all mission specialists. The seven-member STS-131 crew carried the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, filled with supplies, a new crew sleeping quarters and science racks that were transferred to the station's laboratories. The crew also switched out a gyroscope on the station's truss, installed a spare ammonia storage tank and retrieved a Japanese experiment from the station's exterior. STS-131 is the 33rd shuttle mission to the station and the 131st shuttle mission overall.
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Main gear touchdown was at 9:08:35 a.m. followed by nose gear touchdown at 9:08:47 a.m. and wheels stop at 9:09:33 a.m.
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See more STS-131 photos by NASA here and at JAXA here.
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20 April 2010 --- At the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, members of the STS-131 crew, each holding a flag from his or her country of origin, pose for a portrait in front of space shuttle Discovery.20 April 2010 --- At the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, members of the STS-131 crew, each holding a flag from his or her country of origin, pose for a portrait in front of space shuttle Discovery. From the right are NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Rick Mastracchio, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie Wilson, Japanese astronaut Naoko Yamazaki and NASA astronaut Clayton Anderson, all mission specialists. Discovery landed on Runway 33 after 15 days in space, completing the more than 6.2-million-mile STS-131 mission on orbit 238. Main gear touchdown was at 9:08:35 a.m. (EDT) on April 20, 2010, followed by nose gear touchdown at 9:08:47 a.m. and wheelstop at 9:09:33 a.m. The seven-member STS-131 crew carried the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, filled with supplies, a new crew sleeping quarters and science racks that were transferred to the International Space Station's laboratories. The crew also switched out a gyroscope on the station's truss, installed a spare ammonia storage tank and retrieved a Japanese experiment from the station's exterior. STS-131 is the 33rd shuttle mission to the station and the 131st shuttle mission overall.
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20 April 2010 --- Naoko Yamazaki, holds a Japanese flag near the space shuttle Discovery shortly after Discovery and the STS-131 crew landed at the Kennedy Space Center...20 April 2010 --- Japanese astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, holds a Japanese flag near the space shuttle Discovery shortly after Discovery and the STS-131 crew landed at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla., on April 20, 2010. NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Rick Mastracchio, Stephanie Wilson, Clayton Anderson and Japanese astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, all mission specialists, returned from their 15-day journey of more than 6.2 million miles. The STS-131 mission to the International Space Station delivered science racks, new crew sleeping quarters, equipment and supplies. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls
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NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) director Michael L. Coats (center background) and the STS-131 crew members are pictured at the STS-131 crew return ceremony on April 21, 2010 at Ellington Field near JSC.21 April 2010 --- NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) director Michael L. Coats (center background) and the STS-131 crew members are pictured at the STS-131 crew return ceremony on April 21, 2010 at Ellington Field near JSC. Pictured from the left are NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Rick Mastracchio, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie Wilson, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki and NASA astronaut Clayton Anderson, all mission specialists.
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21 April 2010 --- Dr. Kuniaki Shiraki, executive director, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), addresses a large crowd of well-wishers at the STS-131 crew return ceremony on April 21, 2010 at Ellington Field near NASA's Johnson Space Center.21 April 2010 --- Dr. Kuniaki Shiraki, executive director, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), addresses a large crowd of well-wishers at the STS-131 crew return ceremony on April 21, 2010 at Ellington Field near NASA's Johnson Space Center. Also pictured (seated from the left) are JSC director Michael L. Coats (mostly obscured), NASA astronauts Alan Poindexter, commander; James P. Dutton Jr., pilot; Rick Mastracchio, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie Wilson, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki and NASA astronaut Clayton Anderson, all mission specialists.
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Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, addresses a large crowd of well-wishers at the STS-131 crew return ceremony on April 21, 2010 at Ellington Field...21 April 2010 --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist, addresses a large crowd of well-wishers at the STS-131 crew return ceremony on April 21, 2010 at Ellington Field near NASA's Johnson Space Center.
   
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